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*Mass Number: 72.59       *Atomic Number: 32

*41 Neutrons  *32 Electrons  *32 Protons

  *Boiling Point: 2830 C     *Melting Point: 937.4 C

  *Density: 5323 kg.m    *Specific Heat: 0.077 cal/g

* Group: 14   *Period: 4

*Electron Configuration: 1s 2s p3s p d 4s p

*Density: 5.323g/cc

*Discoverer: Clemens Winkler

*Discovery Location: Germany

*Year Discovered: 1886

*Origin: Latin-Germania (Germany)

*Sources: Obtained from refining copper, zinc, and lead.

* Used mainly in semi-conductors


Germanium was discovered in 1886 by Clemins Winker. Germanium's existence was predicted by Mendeleev in 1871. He predicted the existence of Germanium as ekasilicon. It occurrence is .007% of the earth's crust. In the element form it is a lustrous white, brittle metalloid. Germanium is crystalline and brittle in the pure state, retaining it's luster @ room temperature. When crystallized it has a diamond cubic structure. It is a poor conductor and is used in electronics in rectifying devices and transistors. The common use for Germanium is a semi-conductor.

Germanium is put with arsenic, gallium, or other elements. It's also used in dental alloys. Several compounds contain germanium, for one example; "Germaine" or germanium hydride is a colorless gas GeH4 prepared by the action of lithium aluminum hydride on germanium halide in another solution. The high index of refraction and dispersion property of it's oxide's have made geranium useful as a component of wide angle camera lenses and microscope objectives.

By: Ashley Cecaci

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